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Curriculum Source:


  1. ST2-12MW Students identify that adding or removing heat causes a change of state between solids and liquids.
  2. ST2-13MW Students identify the physical properties of natural and processed materials, and how these properties influence their use.

BOS: Content:

1. A change of state between solid and liquid can be caused by adding or removing heat. (ACSSU046)

  1. STUDENTS: describe some everyday situations where solids and liquids change state by adding heat (heating) or removing heat (cooling)
  2. CRITICAL & CREATIVE THINKING: predict and observe the effects of adding heat or removing heat on a variety of everyday solids and/or liquids, eg butter, chocolate and water CCT
  3. describe how scientific knowledge about the effects of heating and cooling is used by people in their everyday life, eg the types of clothes worn, the packaging and preparation of food and everyday devices, eg freezers, irons or cooktops

2. Natural and processed materials have a range of physical properties which influence their use. (ACSSU074)

  1. STUDENTS: observe the changes that occur in the physical properties of everyday materials when they are heated, cooled, bent, stretched, folded and twisted
  2. LITERACY: observe and describe the structure of materials that can be seen with the naked eye and a magnifying glass, eg grains in bread, particles in chipboard or cork, threads within a fabric or fibres in paper
  3. identify the properties of some natural and processed materials
  4. describe how a range of common natural and processed materials are used in everyday life
  5. CRITICAL & CREATIVE THINKING: generate ideas about how the physical properties of some natural and processed materials influence their use.

Introduction To Heat

The Universe is made up of matter and energy. Matter is made up of atoms and molecules (groupings of atoms) and energy causes the atoms and molecules to always be in motion - either bumping into each other or vibrating back and forth. The motion of atoms and molecules creates a form of energy called heat or thermal energy which is present in all matter. Even in the coldest voids of space, matter still has a very small but still measurable amount of heat energy.

Energy can take on many forms and can change from one form to another. Many different types of energy can be converted into heat energy. Light, electrical, mechanical, chemical, nuclear, sound and thermal energy itself can each cause a substance to heat up by increasing the speed of its molecules. So, put energy into a system and it heats up, take energy away and it cools. For example, when we are cold, we can jump up and down to get warmer.

Heat can be a chemical or physical phenomena. All chemical phenomena ultimately reduce to physical phenomena (physics).

Video 1. How we sense hot and cold

Sensing Temperature

When something feels hot to you, the molecules in that something are moving very fast. When something feels cool to you, the molecules in that object aren’t moving quite so fast. Believe it or not, your body perceives how fast molecules are moving by how hot or cold something feels.

Your body has a variety of ways (senses) to detect energy.

  • Your eyes perceive certain frequencies of electromagnetic waves as light.
  • Your ears perceive certain frequencies of longitudinal waves as sound.
  • Your skin, mouth and tongue can perceive thermal energy as hot or cold.

What a magnificent energy sensing instrument you are!

Video 2. Changing states: matter!

Video 3. Changing states: matter!



Q4.1 'Will a cold snowball give off cold air'?

Endothermic reactions absorb energy from the environment, while exothermic reactions release energy to the environment. In order to melt the ice cube (snowball), heat is required, so the process is endothermic - Source

YES: ? NO:

  1. Utah Education Network Heat misconceptions diagnostic
  2. 'No, Heat moves from concentrations of high to low' Brainly
  3. 'No' Source
  4. “Cold” is the absence of heat, not a form of negative energy. Similarly, when an object “feels cold,” heat is being conducted to it from your hand, so “feels less warm than my hand” would be more correct. Source Concord Consortium
  5. Ice cubes do not give off cold Source


''Am I just a pedantic science nitpik'?

For anyone who aspires to 'learn about science', agree or not, it's still an interesting question: Source: William Beaty

Heat Quiz References:

learn/heat/quiz/home.txt · Last modified: 25/06/2019/ 20:04 by